How to set up the perfect Home for your Pet Reptile

Everything you need to set up your pet reptile cage or terrarium!

For many first time reptile owners, the hardest step is to figure out just how to set up a home for their new pet. Don’t worry, it is not that complicated if you know what you need.

Most beginners just go out to their local pet store and get everything the staff recommends, which is quite unnecessary. Usually, you need a lot less than what you think you need!

Setting up enclosures like this can be challenging but also fun! ( setup by Roger Aeberhard)

So, here we will discuss what you definitely need to set up a home for your reptile and how you can tell what is unnecessary!

First, lets start with the things you have to know before you even chose the equipment you will need. Here is what you should know about your future pet before you decide what you buy for its cage:

  • Where is the animal from?
  • What habitat does your future pet reptile live in?
  • What is the local temperature/humidity throughout the year in the wild?
  • What does it eat?
  • How old is it and how long will it live?
  • How large will it get?

Of course, you should know a lot more about your future pet, but these things matter the most when it comes to choosing your cage setup!

Morelia Viridis - Green Tree Python
Green Tree Pythons need a very specific climate – awalys do your research!

Now, lets get started on how to set up your pet reptile habitat!

Step 1: Choosing a cage

The first thing you are going to have to get is a cage or terrarium for your reptile! I always advise beginners to set up naturalistic enclosures that have a lot of space for the animal to explore. Many people keep snakes in tubs or rack systems where the animals are cramped into small spaces all the time.

Yes, ball pythons may not move a lot, but they occasionally will explore and roam around if given the space. So, make sure your pet has a reasonably sized cage compared to its body length. For snakes, 1 * 0.5 * 0.75 (length * depth * height) times the length of an adult animal is enough.

Natural setups are much more attractive and beneficial for your pet reptile

In the end it is of course entirely up to you what size you choose. However, keep in mind that we always want to give our pet a habitat that is as close to the wild as possible.

I am aware that under some circumstances, keeping reptiles in rack systems and tubs is necessary but it should be avoided whenever possible. Also, check if there are any laws that restrict the size of your terrarium. In Switzerland for example, each snake cage mus be at least 1 * 0.5 * 0.5 (length * depth * height) times the length of an adult animal.

Keeping snakes in naturalistic enclosures brings many more pleasures to the hobby that just the animal itself. A beautifully designed terrarium can be a very nice addition to your living space!

Step 2: The appropriate environment

Now, the most important step is to figure out what environment your reptile requires. This means that you will have to do research on your pets natural habitat. Find out:

  • where it comes from.
  • what the temperature is like throughout the year in its natural habitat.
  • how high the humidity is. (are there rainy seasons)
  • what type of lifestyle it lives. (arboreal, in burrows or on the ground?
  • when it is active. (diurnal or nocturnal?)

All these things will matter when you choose the heating methods and technical aspects of your cage. Some devices are better suited for each species than others. It is always good to get an opinion from someone who has already kept the species you want to get. They can tell you what has worked out for them and what you should avoid.

Some animals may need specific beddings. This gaboon viper likes to hide in the leaves.

Keep in mind that pet store owners do also not know everything about you species and may not even have any experience with it. Do not just buy a standard cage setup in any case, but choose what your reptile needs the most.

When it comes to technical additions like heat lamps, heat pads or other devices to control humidity, there are a lot of options around. You need to do your research and figure out which one is best for your species.

Heat lamps are very effective and easy-to-install heat sources for your terrarium!

If you are uncertain what your options are, click HERE to find out more about methods to heat your terrarium. If you are more concerned about humidity, click HERE.

Step 3: Find space and set up the cage

Now the last and most obvious step is the final setup of your cage. After you have done all the research on your new pet, it is time to create a home for them.

The best solutions is always a terrarium that is as close as possible to the natural habitat of your animal! With a naturalistic enclosure, it is very unlikely that you run into problems like stress or sickness along your journey. So, just go out into the woods, find some nice logs and rocks or buy artificial plants or decoration online.

Now, if you are interested, HERE you will find a collection of terrarium plants for decoration!

Artificial plants and flowers can set a beautiful tone!

All that’s left your you to do is set up the cage and decorate its inside. Make sure that you set it up in a space that is easily accessible. In case of a technical problem, everything should be easy to reach and fix.

So, don’t worry and go ahead and have fun setting up your first pet reptile cage. If you have done all your research and follow the instructions, it is not that big of a deal! Good luck!


I hope that you enjoyed this post!

I know how hard it can be to find the right equipment and setup for a reptile home. They key is to do your research! I hope that this post was helpful and has encouraged you to go out and do it yourself!

As always, feel free to leave a comment or contact me directly with you questions.

If you are interested in my sources, click HERE!

 

What is a Genus? Taxonomy explained

Per definition, a Genus (noun, plural: genera) is a taxonomic category ranking used in biological classification that is above a species and below a family level, and includes groups of species that are structurally similar or phylogenetically related.

Now, what does this mean?

It means that a genus is just a category used by biologists to classify and categorize similar organisms to understand how they are related. Biological classification, or Taxonomy, is a system used by biologists to understand the different groups of organisms on earth and how they evolved from each other.

In Taxonomy, organisms are categorized in smaller and smaller groups with similar attributes. This ladder ends with each individual species on earth that can have fertile offspring.

The genus is the second last step of this ladder, just before the species. To determine the taxonomic name of a species, the genus and species name are put together. For example, the taxonomic name of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake is Crotalus adamanteus, where Crotalus (rattlesnakes) is the genus name and adamanteus is its species name.


If you enjoyed this post, you can continue reading on Taxonomy HERE, or start with my “Beginners Guide to Reptiles” by clicking HERE.

You are always welcome to leave a comment on my posts or contact me directly with your questions!

If you are interested in my sources, just click HERE.

Feel free to continue searching my site for what you would like to know or leave a comment about what you would like to see on this site in the future

How to Handle a Snake

How to pick up a pet snake

The skin of snakes has fascinated people for decades and many find a beautiful, calm and gentle companion in their new pet. Many beginner snake keepers have not had very much contact with these animals before getting one and are insecure about how they should handle their pet without stressing it out or provoking it to bite.

Snakes such as Ball Pythons make great pets because they are forgiving and easy to handle!

This post will offer you a detailed description on how we have to behave to avoid any issues with snakes

Keep in mind that every snake has an individual personality and may react accordingly different. I want to discuss how you should generally pick up a non-venomous snake, regardless of species, but there are always exceptions that require special care. Also, avoid handling wild specimen as you can never be sure that it is harmless or how it will behave.

How can I avoid provoking a snake to bite me

Nothing bites without a reason and snakes are no exceptions. Many people seem to be afraid of the snake wanting to eat them or kill them. This is completely absurd! Snakes, except for a few species, are way to small to regard us humans as prey or kill us.

So, the only reason why a snake, venomous or non-venomous, would ever bite a human is in defense. Snakes never act aggressively but they may be very defensive if they feel threatened in any way. This is why we have to make sure that we do not provoke our pet snake.

For some reason, people always mess with snakes. If you behave in such a way around a snake, a bite is not unlikely!

Not provoking a snake is a little harder than it sounds; don’t pose a threat to a snake and it wont bother you being there. This basically means that you should not give the animal any reason to fear you so that it won’t have to be defensive. However, when your handling a snake, you are basically already posing a threat, so the key is to show the animal that you are no predator and do not want to harm it.

To convince it that you are not threat, let the snake choose its own path and do not try to force it in any direction. It will soon find its own way in your arms. By not grabbing onto it tightly, you show it that you have no intention to hurt it. You should also always avoid rapid movements, which may cause the animal to freak out and try to escape.

The head is another sensitive area where snakes can easily feel like you want to harm them. So, if you do not have to check something on your snakes’ head, stay away from it and let it decide where it wants to go.

A snake will openly show you how it feels about you with its body language. Look for jerky movements, s-shaped neck position and hissing. Any of these are clear signs that the animal does not want to be bothered. It will seem nervous, flick its tongue in long intervals and get scared at any movement you make. In this case, it is best to just back off and come back another time.

The S-shaped neck position of this Crotalus durissus is a clear sign that the animal does not want to be messed with!

As long as you stay calm, respect the snakes’ path and do not hurt it in any way, the snake will behave the same!

Picking up a snake – 3 simple steps

Many beginner pet snake keepers struggle with picking up their snake. Here are three simple steps you should follow when picking up any snake, regardless of species. Remember, there are always exceptional individuals that require special care

Step 1

You should avoid trying to pull the snake out of a tight space. Instead, wait until it is on the move or in and open space where you can easily reach it and calmly pick it up.

Now you can proceed to step 1: touch the snake and show it that you are there. Do not stroke or scratch it because that will stress out most snakes. Instead, just gently place your hand on the middle body part of the snake, not close to the head. The snake will now show you how it fells about your presence; if it reacts by trying to move away quickly or turns in a jerky move, it may already be stressed out and not want to be bothered. If it only reacts moderately to your touch, you can proceed without worrying about a bite.

 

Step 2

Now that you are sure that it is not acting super defensively or jerky, you can go on to pick it up. Gently slide one or both your hands underneath its body and lift it up. If possible, make sure that the head is facing away from you and try to stay away from its head. At this point, you should not be holding on too tightly and let the snake escape if it suddenly tries to.

 

Step 3

Make sure that while holding it in the air you are supporting every part of its body to avoid injuring its rib cage or spine. Just slide your hand closer to the head and hold it gently above the floor as shown in the image below. If it starts moving about, perfect, just let it find its own path, relax and enjoy. Stay calm and the snake will not freak out either.

To place it back, follow step 2 and 3 in reverse order and let the snake escape back into its enclosure alone.


 

I hope you do now feel a little less afraid or uncomfortable about picking up a pet snake!

You are always welcome to leave a comment on my posts or contact me directly via e-mail with your questions!

If you are interested in my sources, just click HERE.

Feel free to continue searching my site for what you would like to know or leave a comment about what you would like to see in the future.

To continue reading my “Beginners Guide”, click HERE

 

 

 

How Biological Classification (Taxonomy) Works

People have always given names to things around them, including plants and animals to identify individuals in the huge world of biodiversity. Essentially, this is what the biological classification of organisms, or Taxonomy, is all about. It is a way for biologists to accurately name and identify one species next to another to better understand the works of ecosystems, evolution and divergence.

This beautiful Naja siamensis, a spitting cobra, belongs to the Elapidae family.

It all started in the 18th century when Carl Linnaeus published a system that would evolve into our system of taxonomic classification for biodiversity. Linnaeus not only gave things a name, but he was the first to develop a hierarchical classification system that held information about what the species was (its Latin name) and who it was closely related to. This would allow scientists to understand complex relations in ecosystems.

We often see fancy Latin names next to the common names on the boards at the zoo that tell us a little about the animal we are looking at. Now, we want to make sure that the next time you see a name like this, you too can understand what is tells us about the animal it was given to!

Bitis rhinoceros, Gaboon Viper – this animal is closely related to the Puff adder, Bitis arietans – in this post you will learn how you can tell by their taxonomic names!

Especially in the reptile hobby, where many animals are often only called by their scientific name, understanding this system will give you a great advantage and fewer terms to look up if you ever read a scientific book or listen to scientists talking!


The hierarchical structure of taxonomic classification

Taxonomy is the practice of identifying and categorizing organisms in a hierarchical structure. Every organism, both living and extinct, is classified in a specific group along with other similar organisms and given a scientific name.

This system has various taxonomic categories. These gradually shift from being very broad an including all kinds of organisms to being more specific until each species eventually has an individual name.

The eight categories are in shrinking order: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.

With each step down this ladder, organisms are split into more and more specific groups.

The taxonomic ladder

For example, the Kingdom “Animalia” is split into many Phyla (plural of Phylum), one of which are the “Chordata” (vertebrates). The Chordata are then split into many Classes, one of which are the “Reptilia” (the reptiles). This means that all Reptilia belong to the Chordata, but the Chordata also include mammals and amphibians and so not everything in the Chordata is necessarily a reptile. This is similar with all the other categories – the closer we get to the species, the narrower the tree of relatives gets!

The broadest category, the “Domain” splits all organisms into three groups. The three Domains of life are the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota.


Kingdom

For a long time, all organisms were classified into just a few Kingdoms like animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria and archaea.

However, new genetic analysis of organisms and genetic inheritance models suggest that this division may have to be revised and split into further Kingdoms.

Phylum

Although a Phylum is still a very broad group, it splits Kingdoms into already very recognized smaller categories. For example, the Kingdom Animalia is split further into the vertebrates (Chordata) or all insects, spiders and crustaceans (Arthropoda). Invertebrates are split into many smaller Phyla.

Class

Classes are the next step closer to the species. Notable classes include the reptiles (Reptilia), mammals and amphibians from the Phylum of vertebrates (Chordata).

Order

Each Class is further separated into Orders. One example from the Reptilia Class are the Squamata. This is a large order of reptiles that collectively includes all scaled reptiles. Orders can be further separated into Sub-Orders. For example, the Serpentes are a Sub-Order of the Squamata and include all snakes.

The Class Reptilia is further separated into Orders and Sub-Orders

Family

A Family is the next level down. Understanding the Families of reptiles can be very helpful to identify a species. One of the most known Family of snakes are the Vipers (Viperidae). Elapids (Elapidae) are also a very notable Family of venomous snakes. Just like Orders, Families can be further separated into Sub-Families. As an example, the Viperidae can be separated into Pit-Vipers (Crotalinae) and Old World Vipers (Viperinae). You can read more on these Families HERE.

Genus

The second last step down the classification ladder is the Genus. Genera (plural of Genus) include only very closely related species. All members of a Genus usually have a lot in common and are sometimes only hard to tell apart. One notable genus of snakes are definitely the Rattlesnakes which belong to the Family of the Pit-Vipers (Crotalinae).

Species

The final taxonomic category is the Species. All members of a Species can produce fertile offspring. If this is not the case, the two animals were not from the same species. Each Species is assigned a latin name, often according to one special characteristic or the name of its discoverer. For example, if we look at the largest species of the Genus Crotalus, we realize that it got its Species name (adamanteus = made of diamonds, of adamant) because of the diamond shaped markings on its back! This is of course the well-known Western Diamondback Rattlesnake or Crotalus adamanteus.


How the taxonomic name of an organism comes together

Now, after we have slowly and step by step classified the organism, we have to set its Latin name. This is actually quite simple – as you might have guessed from above, the taxonomic name of an organism is just the name of its Genus and Species put together.

Crotalus adamanteus. The diamond shapes are clearly visible (by Mark Kostich)

So, if we know that the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake is part of the Genus Crotalus and we know that its Species name is adamanteus, then we simply put the two together to get the full taxonomic name: Crotalus adamanteus!

Now you can always understand what the two Latin words on the small boards next to the animals at the Zoo represent and how you can use them to understand how some animals are related!


I hope you have learned something new about Taxonomy today and feel a bit more comfortable with the way organisms are classified in biology!

You are always welcome to leave a comment on my posts or contact me directly via e-mail with your questions!

If you are interested in my sources, just click HERE.

Feel free to continue searching my site for what you would like to know or leave a comment about what you would like to see in the future.

 

 

 

Everything you need to Know before You get a Pet Reptile

Everything you need to know about reptiles before you can get started in this exciting hobby!

Reptiles and snakes have been subject to so many prejudices over the last decades. Fortunately, many people are starting to realize that these animals are actually really interesting and fascinating animals.

Keeping snakes or lizards as pets is getting increasingly popular today. More and more people are getting their first pet reptile each day! This is of course great for the hobby and the reputation reptiles have been getting over the past years!

Morelia Viridis - Green Tree Python
To keep reptiles can be a fascinating experience – here is how you can get started!

So, if you are one of those people who are becoming interested in reptiles, this is a guide for you to what you can study and learn about these awesome creatures. After this you will be perfectly ready to eventually get your first pet reptile!


First of all, lets start with the basics you should know about reptiles and snakes:

  • The body temperature of a snake relies on external heat sources which is whyyou can often see them sunbathing, like this Green Mamba!

    Reptiles are ectotherm animals. So, unlike us, reptiles need to acquire their energy levels for the day from the sun and do not actively regulate their body temperature. That means, if it is cold outside, a reptile would not get enough energy to carry out basic bodily functions and move about.

    This is why it is so important to regulate the temperature in their enclosure to make sure the animal has the appropriate body temperature! You can read more about this in my ost on “The Best Methods to Heat your Terrarium”

  • Just like every other animal, reptiles need to replace their skin as they grow. However, unlike other creatures and because they are covered in scales, reptiles replace their skin all at once every few months to keep up with their size in a process called shedding. Snakes shed their skins in one full procedure whilst lizards usually shed in smaller bits.
  • A reptile needs to have a certain level of humidity (as close as possible to its country of origin) to make sure that  it can smoothly lift off the old skin from the new scales underneath. If you do not provide this, the reptile may fail to completely replace its skin and retain a “stuck shed”. This can be very unhealthy and dangerous. This is why it is important for you to set the humidity to an appropriate level in a reptile enclosure! You can continue reading more on this in my post on “The best Methods for Humidity Control inside your Terrarium”

    To avoid terrible conditions like this, make sure that your animals always get the appropriate humidity inside its cage!

  • Reptiles are both carnivorous and herbivorous. This means that some species feed on herbs and greens whilst others prefer meat.
  • There are roughly 9500 species of reptiles all over the world, 3000 of which are snakes. Of these 3000, some 600 are venomous and only 200 are considered medically important at all. If you want to know more about venomous snakes classification, click HERE! If you don’t understand biological classification quite yet, just click HERE!
  • Reptiles are very shy animals and generally want to be left alone. They are often scared of contact with humans and may act skittish or nervous around us. No reptile is aggressive. However, some are very defensive and easily provoked and may not be as well suited to the pet trade as others. A responsible keeper should learn how to handle a reptile before getting one! If you are interested in a guide, stay tuned, I am working on a simple beginners guide to handling reptiles!

 


Now, lets move on to some more specific topics you can study to gain more understanding of reptiles, their biology, behavior and husbandry requirements:

First of all, you want to make sure that you understand the basic bodily functions and anatomy of your pet reptile. Some lizards or snakes may have very fragile body parts that you should know about before handling your animal.

For example, all geckos, skinks and many other lizards will drop their tail as a defensive mechanism. Although the tail will eventually re-grow, it is not pretty to look at and certainly painful for the animal. This is why you should be careful when handling geckos.

Geckos and many other lizards will drop a part of their tail when grabbed to roughly, so be careful!

Also, Green Tree Pythons have very fragile spinal cords that you could easily break if you handle the animal too roughly. So, spare your animal the pain and learn how to gently handle a snake before you acquire one. More on this in my post on “How to pick up a snake”

Unfortunately, I can not give you everything you need to know about the anatomy of reptiles in just one post. So, if you are interested you are free to read on about this topic!

 


As far as the behavior of reptiles goes, there is unfortunately not one book, article or video that could summarize this huge topic. Every reptile is unique in terms of personality and trust towards humans.

Generally speaking, reptiles are not in any way attached to us. However, they can build up a certain level of trust that will allow us to handle them without having our pet freak out. To achieve this level takes quite some time and effort. We must ensure the animal feels comfortable and secure, but the time is well worth the experience for any keeper.

Reptiles tell you everything you need to understand through their body language. A cobra will hood to tell you that it is stressed out and defensive and a rattlesnake will rattle its tail. You can always spend some time around your desired species to learn their typical defensive traits and calm behavior patterns.

Defensive display of a Naja Naja, the spectacle cobra – a snake always communicates through their body language

So, although I cannot give you any distinct tips that fit your personal pet, I can encourage you to spend as much time as possible around the species and individuals you want to keep to learn their typical responses to human contact!


 

Husbandry requirements are very important topic when it comes to reptile keeping. Unfortunately, there is also not one complete guide that will tell you everything you need to know. You have to research and find the requirement that your species needs to create an appropriate home for your pet.

Beatiful natural setup for green mambas (dendroaspis viridis) usign branches and artificial plants or flowers (by Roger Aeberhard)

Generally speaking, you will achieve the best reptile husbandry by creating a home for your pet that is as close as possible to its natural habitat. I always advise you to stay away from racks and tubs and go more in the direction of naturalistic enclosures. It will greatly elevate your pet reptile experience. After all, the most beautiful part of this hobby is the privilege to observe your pet in its natural habitat comfortably at home!


 

I hope you do now feel a bit more comfortable with reptiles and are ready to continue your journey!

You are always welcome to leave a comment on my posts or directly contact me with your questions!

If you are interested in my sources, just click HERE.

Feel free to continue searching my site for what you would like to know or leave a comment about what you would like to see on this site in the future.

 

 

 

Heat Lamps – 3 common issues and how to avoid them

When it comes to heating an enclosure, heat lamps are the most popular choice among reptile keepers. They are easy to set up and create a nice hot-spot for your reptile. They are certainly among the most efficient heat sources you can choose for your terrarium.

Heat lamps are the most popular heating device among reptile keepers

Yet, many keepers encounter a number of problems when dealing with heat lamps.

In this post I want to address issues like overheating, dried out air and skin burns on the animal or the keeper himself and how you can avoid them.

1. Overheating

Certainly, the most common issue reptile keepers have with their lamps is overheating. You can recognize this issue quite easily – either you realize that the thermometer in your enclosure show a higher than appropriate temperature or you tried touching the lamp and it was very painful. Either way, this is a very common issue and it can be dangerous for your animal depending on how the lamp is set up. Now, why does almost every heat lamp overheat eventually?

Here’s why:

Skin burns on your pet reptile are not very pretty and should be avoided!

Actually, it is not even the lamp that is overheating but most likely the metal case around it. Unless you chose the wrong intensity on your lamp, it should not get too hot. However, the longer you leave it switched on, the hotter its metal case is going to get and eventually, the case is going to radiate out even more heat along with the lamp.

Now, another reason why your heat lamp is getting so hot could very well be that you have underestimated its power when buying it and got a too strong lamp for your enclosure. This is very common with beginners and you will learn to guess the heat lamp intensity you need for your enclosure eventually. However, if you do not want to buy another lamp or constantly switch the lamp on and off to avoid the metal getting to hot, there is a much simpler solution to your problem – a thermostat!

Thermostats are very useful to control temperature levels!

If you do not know what a thermostat is, click HERE for a simple tutorial on how to use and set up this lifesaving device.

2. Your reptile keeps climbing on the lamp and burns its skin…

This goes along with the problem of overheating and is another very common issue among beginners. There are a number of reasons why this can occur…

As mentioned before, skin burns and other injuries from the heat lamp could be the result of overheating and burning hot metal cases of the lamp. Reptiles are often very curious and do not hesitate to climb around in their enclosures, even occasionally on their heat source.

Here’s how to fix this:

Premier Heat Lamp for Brooders, Lambs and PetsIn most cases, the thermostat will also solve the problem and protect your reptiles from injuries. However, sometimes, the lamp is still getting too hot and posing a threat to your reptiles health. In that scenario, only a protective basket above the heat lamp will do the trick and fully guarantee that your animal is not getting dangerously close to its heat source! Such a basket is very easy to install and can be acquired at your local pet store! You can also buy heat lamps that have protective caps installed already, like seen in the images. You can click HERE to check them out on amazon.com.

 

3. The heat lamp dries out the entire enclosure…

This is probably the most common problem with heat lamps and it is a very annoying one. Heat lamps distribute heat waves that have a tendency to dry the air around the lamp, which is especially problematic if you keep reptiles from more humid regions like South-east Asia or Central Afrika.

Unfortunately, there is really not much you can do about this, except for manually raising the humidity in the enclosure. You can also try to mist the surroundings of the lamp directly to counteract this annoying effect by cooling the surface of the lamp. However, if this issue gets too extreme, there are always other great options to heat your terrarium that do not have this issue.

 

Rattlesnakes – The most feared creatures in North America

Fear or fascination – encounters with rattlesnakes (Crotalus sp. & Sistrurus sp.) are always exciting experiences for the people of northern and central America. Because of their signature feature, their rattle at the end of their tails, they are probably amongst the easiest to identify genus of snakes in the world. And if there is anything that everybody around the world knows about these species, it is that they are all venomous!

Crotalus oreganus

Rattlesnakes belong to the taxonomic family of the Vipers (Viperidae) and belong to the subfamily of Pit Vipers (Crotalinae). They represent the classic image of a Viper, including their long, needle-like fangs folded back into their mouths that deliver the venom to the prey in case of a bite. Most species of Pit Vipers, including rattlesnakes, are highly venomous and carry a mix of toxins that attack the victims blood clotting factors and connective tissues. Unlike the Old World Vipers (Viperinae), the Crotalinae posess an extra organ, the heat pits lying between their eyes and nasal pits, which they use to detect heat waves from their surroundings. This helps them spot their prey by detecting slight differences between the prey animals body heat and the cooler environment, which is especially useful in the dark.

Pit Vipers usually have a large, triangular head covered in irregularly distributed small scales. However, some genera have rather large and symmetrical scales on their forehead. The pupils of Pit Vipers are usually elliptical and are narrowed down to two vertical slashes when exposed to bright daylight. The subfamily of the Crotalinae is distributed all over Asia and the New World, but the highly specialized genus of the rattlesnakes is only found throughout America. If you are interested in learning more about Pit Vipers in general, click HERE.

Crotalus atrox head

Rattlesnakes get their name from their signature rattle, which is made out of loose, connected and hollow scale structures. If the snake shakes its tale rapidly, the scales vibrate and create the rattling sound so many people fear. At birth, a rattlesnake posesses only one individual modified scale at the end of its tale. Everytime the snake sheds its skin, one segment is added to the end of their tale, creating a growing rattle as the snake ages. Sometimes however, the segments can break off during the snakes live, so the length of a snakes rattle is not a sure indicator of its age. This feature has evolved as an advanced warning system for the snake. When confronted, the snake creates a loud and intimidating noise that scares away a potential threat. All venomous snakes are very reluctant to waste their precious and energy consuming venom on an intruder, which is why they want to avoid a bite at all cost.

Most rattlesnakes belong to the genus Crotalus – the was originally adapted from the Greece word for “rattle”. This genus includes about 27 species and several more subspecies, some of which inhabit a large region and are very popular whilst others are restricted to very remote locations. However, three species of rattlesnakes belong to a different genus – the dwarf rattlesnakes Sistrurus. They differ slightly from the original genus in terms of size and scalation. Only one very special species does not have a rattle at the end of its tail – the Santa-Catalina rattlesnake Crotalus catalinensis is restricted to the remote island Santa Catalina in the gulf of California and does permanently only have one rattle segment.

Size and Coloration

Depending on the species, the Crotalus sp. vary largely in terms of size, but are generally massive and very strong for their length so that even smaller species are very impressive snakes. The largest species, the Eastern Diamondback C. adamanteus can grow up to 2.20 m long and weight up to 4 kg. Most species stay in the 60 – 125 cm range and the smallest reach only about 30 – 50 cm in length. The coloration may always be cryptic but varies to a great extent even between members of the same species. Diamondbacks get their name from their prominent diamond-like pattern and the western C. atrox can be recognized quickly by their unmistakable black and white banding across the end of their tail. Other rattlesnakes, like the black-tailed rattlesnake C. molossus have, like their name suggests, a black tail. The tiger rattlesnake C. tigris has unusual cross bands on its back and a close relative, C. pricei has a row of paired spots along its spine. Abnormal coloration, like albinos or melanistic specimens are also known and sometimes even bred in captivity.

Diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox. The diamond shapes and the striped tail are clearly visible

Distribution, Habitat and Behaviour

When you think of rattlesnakes, the hot deserts of south-western USA and central Mexico come to mind. And you can indeed find the majority of Crotalus sp. in these habitats, so in deserts, dry and rocky canyons and bush land. The sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes for example is a true inhabitant of the desert and has developed special features for the life on hot sand. But rattlesnakes can be observed in a much greater range of geographical habitats than just the desert. The pacific rattlesnake, C. oreganus, can be found as far north as the south-western borders of Canada and also inhabits a large part of the US. Another great example is th species C. viridis, which inhabits the great plains from southern Canada to northern Mexico. C. horridus can be observed in the large territories of the eastern part of the US where the species inhabits the wast forests. Some rattlesnake species are even exclusively found in moist, foresty mountain regions and the eastern Diamondback usually found in very densly vegetated and moist habitats.

The species crotalus molossus is also exceptionally beautiful

All rattlesnakes are ground dwelling snakes, but some have impressive climbing skills. They generally avoid extreme temperatures and are, during very hot days, usually spotted at night oder dawn when they leave their hiding spots to look for prey. Some species, like C. horridus, inhabiting very cold regions frequently hiberante dents, sometimes in groups of more than a dozen snakes. In most habitats, mating season starts in spring, shortly after hibernation. This can include fights amongs males for female companionship and mating usually lasts for a few hours. Like most Pit Vipers, rattle snakes are ovoviparous and have up to 20 live young. Rattlesnakes mostly have a very timid character and avoid confrontation at all cost, warning potential intruders off with their rattle. Most accidents that occur in the US are because very ignorant people were trying to catch or kill the snakes.

Many rattlesnakes have a beautiful pattern like this!

The prey animals of larger rattlesnake species usually includes, birds, mammals and some species of lizards. Rattlesnakes are ambush predators, so they will often sit in the same spot for days, waiting for their prey to pass. These spots are usually selected because of scent trails from prey animals and when the opportunity arrives, the snake will strike within a slit-second and envenomate the victim before releasing it again. The snake then follows the scared and dying animal and, once the venom has completed its job, consumes it head-first. Despite their potent venom, many smaller specimens and species of rattlesnakes are often preyed upon by predatory birds, badgers, opossums or sometimes even other snakes. Kingsnakes of the genus Lampropeltis seem to have specialized in hunting and overpowering other snakes, including rattlesnakes.

Unfortunately and on top of habitat loss, humans often kill every rattlesnake they come across out of ignorance. Every year, hundreds of Americans participate in rattlesnake-roundups, where the snakes fresh out of hibernation are killed in an extremely cruel and inhumane manner. According to the Humane Society of the United States, this is one of the most cruel public events in the US. It is the result of shier ignorance and cruelty towards these highly misunderstood animals. Rattlesnakes are a highly valuable part of the ecosystem and should be respected as such just like and other animal on this planet!

Venom composition and snakebites

In the event of a bite, the venom produced in a modified salivary gland at the side of the snakes head is squeezed through the hollow fangs of the snake. Rattlesnakes are solenoglyphous, so their fangs are folded back into their mouths in a resting position and can be extended when the snake opens its jaws to deliver a bite. The venom of rattle snakes is to a large part heamotoxic and hemorrhagic. This means that the peptide components of the venom attack blood clotting mechanisms or red blood cells and cause persistent bleeding or clotted up veins and arteries, along with large hemorrhages. This is usually accompanied by a drop or steep rise in blood pressure and eventual cardiac arrest in the victims body. The one exception is the species Crotalus scutulatus & Crotalus durissus with its strong neurotoxic components that attack the victims nervous system.

Some Rattlesnakes, like the Crotalus Durissus, are exceptionally neurotoxic, which is unusual for Vipers

As mentioned earlier, rattlesnakes are very reluctant to waste their precious venom. Restoring the venom yield costs the snake a lot of energy and it has to raise its metabolism by up to 30% for a few days. Therefore, it is no surprise that these snakes are not very aggressive or defensive. Nevertheless, humans seem to get constantly wrapped up in conflicts with these animals and deaths by rattlesnake bite are not uncommon in central and southern America. On the other hand, their venom is full of potential medications and drugs that could save hundreds of lives in the future. A lot of research is going on constantly around venom compositions and the functions of individual proteins to help develop our understanding and potential use of these fascinating substances.

Rattlesnakes and traditions

Rattlesnakes have always had an important role in American history and traditional religion and medicine. For example, the god Quetzalcoatl from the Aztec empire was a rattlesnake with feathers. The Hopi in norther Arizona carry live rattlesnakes during their religious marches and pray for rain and healthy crops. Before and during the American revolution, rattlesnakes were a symbol of the American spirit. The slogan “Don’t step on me!” was used accompanied by an image of a rattlesnake to symbolize that the snake only strikes when provoked.

Actually, it was Benjamin Franklin himself who wrote about the rattlesnake as a noble creature and a symbol of America:

“I recollected that her eye excelled in brightness, that of any other animal, and that she has no eye-lids. She may therefore be esteemed an emblem of vigilance. She never begins an attack, nor, when once engaged, ever surrenders: She is therefore an emblem of magnanimity and true courage. As if anxious to prevent all pretensions of quarreling with her, the weapons with which nature has furnished her, she conceals in the roof of her mouth, so that, to those who are unacquainted with her, she appears to be a most defenseless animal; and even when those weapons are shown and extended for her defense, they appear weak and contemptible; but their wounds however small, are decisive and fatal. Conscious of this, she never wounds ’till she has generously given notice, even to her enemy, and cautioned him against the danger of treading on her.”


I hope that you enjoyed this post and that you have learned a little more about these misunderstood animals today!

If you are interested in my Sources, click HERE.

If you want to learn more about Pit Vipers, click HERE.

And if you want to study venomous snakes yourself, check out my post on great literature HERE

The 3 Best Methods to Heat your Terrarium

Reptiles are ectotherm, or coldblooded, which means that they need the energy from the sun and its warmth to get their metabolism and bodily functions going. Unlike mammals, who produce their own body temperature, reptile body heat depends on external sources like the sun, warm rocks, or artificial heating in captivity. Without the heat from its surrounding, a reptile cannot carry out its bodily functions like digestion and other cellular activities. This is why it is crucial for us as reptile keepers to ensure than our animal has the appropriate temperature to live a healthy life!

The body temperature of a snake depends on external heat sources which is why they are often seen sunbathing, like this Green Mamba!

Before you get a pet reptile, you must be absolutely sure where the animal comes from and what temperatures it is confronted with in the wild. Then you should choose and appropriately strong heat source to heat your terrarium and provide the animal with the body temperature it needs.

In this article, I will show you the best devices you can use to heat your terrarium and how to use them.

Temperature Gradient

In the wild, a reptile or snake is not always confronted with the exact same temperatures. Everywhere around the world, there are some days during the year than are just cooler than others. This means than your animal can deal with a range of temperature variation. After you have found out how large these variations are, you can structure your cage accordingly.

Snake Sunbathing

The best way to give the animal the freedom to choose its own body temperature is by creating a heat or temperature gradient. In the wild a snake can choose between sitting on a warm rock or hiding in a cool shelter and it should have the same opportunities in captivity. You can achieve such a temperature gradient by placing the heat source on one end of the terrarium, which creates a hot spot on one side and a cool region on the other. This way, your pet can choose its own body temperature at need.

Remember than at night, everything cools down, which means than you have to either switch off the heating completely or regulate it with a thermostat, depending on the needs of your pet snake.

Thermostat – the best tool for temperature control

Many heat sources tend to heat up to incredible degrees, which can cause damage to the cage and the animals. Probably the best way to control the optimum temperature values and gradients is using a thermostat!

Thermostats are very useful to control temperature levels!

This simple device can be placed outside your cage with an attached thermometer cable which you can place inside the cage. You can then connect your heat source to the thermostat and place it above the thermometer. On the thermostat, you can enter your desired temperature at the point of the attached thermometer and the device will then switch your heat source on and off at times to ensure that there is always the perfect temperature right on your spot. This way you can create a heat spot that is not too hot and set up a nice temperature gradient in your cage!

 

 

I think thermostats are one of the most essential tools when it comes to heating your cage and you can get yourself one at a cheap price from amazon.com or at your local pet store. SEE My Favorite Model

Heat Lamps

Heat lamps or any kind of infrared light source are probably the most common method to heat a terrarium. And that comes as no big surprise since heat lamps are very effective, convenient and easy to install for anyone. They also come in many levels so you can really choose one for your animals needs!

Heat lamps are very effective and easy-to-install heat sources for your terrarium!

However, I personally do not like heat lamps in every situation. First of all, they dry out the air around them really quickly, which can be a huge problem if you are keeping snakes that are sensible to dehydration and shedding issues. They also get incredibly hot really quickly, which can be dangerous for small arboreal snakes like Green Tree Pythons or Corn Snakes. Anyone who has touched a lamp that has been on for a while knows how dangerous they can be for the skin of the animal. A simple solution to this would be a protective cage or net around the lamp which prevents the animal from reaching it, but that is often spacious and annoying to install.

 

You can also easily switch the light source to get different temperature levels.

Still, heat lamps are a great solution if you are keeping animals who are not extremely sensitive to humidity changes and are not in any danger to climb the lamp, like ground dwelling Ball Pythons. They are especially important for large species who do not even get enough heat from any other heat source out there. After all, heat lamps are very common for a reason – because they do a great job for most animals and in many situations. For small ground species however, there are better solutions out there….

If you are interested in getting a heat lamp or infrared light, click HERE to visit amazon.com, or go to your local pet store!

Heat Panels

One of my favourite tools, especially to heat cages of ground dwelling animals, are heat panels. Heat panels are waterproof mats, usually with a rubber cover, that you can place right beneath your substrate to heat the ground.

Usually, they do not exceed 40° Celsius, which is perfect to create a heat spot on one side of the terrarium and temperatures around 28° Celsius on the other side of the cage. This is the optimum temperature situations for many common snake speices like Ball Pythons, Rat Snakes and others, mostly ground dwelling species. It provides a nice and large area for the snake to heat up in the morning, but it does not dry out the air as much as heat lamps, and there is no risk of it getting too hot at times.

Heat Panels are the perfect solution for ground dwelling reptiles to create a hot spot!

However, for arboreal species like corn snakes, Green Treen Pythons or others, this may not be the right choice, since these animals do not spend much time heating up on the ground and need a heat source from above. There are some panels out there that can be attached to the ceiling, but the far superior solution for this situation is in my opinion the heat cable!

If you do have say a Ball Pythons or some other mostly ground dwelling reptile, this is probably the best solution for you. If you are interested, you can check out my favourite products HERE!, or get one at your local pet store!

Heat Cables

Heat panels are among my favourite solutions for heating cages of small arboreal snakes. Species like Corn Snakes and Green Tree Pythons do not require as much heat as others, but they are mostly arboreal which makes heating a bit complicated. As mentioned above, small snake like this love to climb their heat lamps which can get very hot on the outside just as any lamp after some time does!

Heat Cables are perfect for you if you are keeping small arboreal species!

This is why heat cables are so convenient for this case since they do not heat up so quickly and can be easily attached to the ceiling of your cage to provide a nice heat source from above. Heat cables can be easily fixed in any positions on the top or at the back of your terrarium which makes creating a temperature gradied to easy. They can be conveniently placed along one region in one corner and create a falling gradient towards the diagonal corner with a nice heat spot at the top.

So if your keep small arboreal species, you should definitely consider choosing one of these as your temperature control device! However, if you keep large species than require a lot of heat and over a great space, a heat cable probably won’t be quite right for you.

If you are interested in getting one, HERE is my favourite model and you can check out more on amazon.com, or most likely at your local pet store.


 

I hope than you found this article helpful and than you can now choose your perfect heat source for you pet reptile.

If you have any further questions, let my know by email timmy@snakeinfos.com or leave a comment below!

If you want to know where I get all my knowledge from, visit “My Sources”

 

The best Methods for Humidity Control inside your Terrarium

Most snakes and reptiles live in rather moist and humid areas of the world. Very often, reptile keepers experience difficulty and issues when it comes to keeping the optimum humidity levels inside your cage. It is very important that you keep the humidity levels your pet would also experience in the wild to avoid shedding and dehydration.

Humidity control is and essential point when it comes to keeping your animals skin and tissues healthy. Most reptiles come from exotic locations that may be very different in terms of temperature and humidity percentage in the air. For many keepers, the reality is that those circumstances are not given in their home country, which is why we need to heat and mist our animals cage constantly to give it the surrounding it is used to in the wild.

In this article, I want to introduce you to my favourite techniques and methods when it comes to keeping that optimum air humidity percentage.

To avoid terrible conditions like this, make sure that your animals always get the appropriate humidity inside its cage!

First of all, I want to tell you that humidity control is not as difficult as its is sometimes said to be on forums and other platforms. In fact, most reptiles that are common in the pet trade are not incredibly sensible to dehydration. That is not to say that you should keep an eye on the appropriate humidity, but you usually should worry if your cage is a bit dry once in a while. Many snakes or lizards do not need such a high humidity percentage all the time and they are usually fine on a bit dried out soil as well.

The crucial period comes when the animal is starting to get into shed and replace its old skin. During those days, it is important that you keep the humidity on an appropriate level to ensure the clean replacement of the skin and to avoid any stuck shed. Stuck sheds can lead to dangerous constrictions and necroses in the skin, so you must make sure that the animal has the necessary conditions to shed.

Remember, things such as air conditioners, heat lamps or even seasons can influence the surrounding humidity and you always need to adjust your control methods accordingly. Also, a cage that is permanently wet encourages the growth on bacteria and fungi, so don’t overdo your “humidity control”

Misting

Misting refers to using an aerosol or something similar to spray down the inside of your cage. This will temporarily simulate a rainfall and leave the cage in a wet condition. Over the next couple of hours, the cage will start to dry off and the humidity percentage inside will rise, depending on how much you sprayed. One it has completely dried off, it is time to spray again.

These Spray bottler are perfect for misting your cage once a week.

However, for most reptiles common in the pet trade, this does not have to be done on a daily basis. It is perfectly fine to spray down your cage only once a week if you are keeping a reptile that does not come from tropical areas of the world. That way, it will experience rising humidity levels similar to rainfalls without living in a wet cage all the time.

 

 

It is also a useful extra once your animal gets into shed. You should spray it directly a couple of times to let the skin soak up the water and ensure a clean shed. Otherwise, you do not need to mist regularly, unless your animal is showing signs of dehydration or your country is experiencing an unusual drought.

These are the spray bottles I use – get them now also on amazon.com

You can get yourself just the same spray bottles I use HERE from amazon.com as a useful extra for your reptile husbandry!

Air Humidifiers

Although it is not the most ecological method out there, humidifiers are an incredibly useful tool if you are keeping Green Tree Pythons or other snakes and reptiles that live in very tropical and humid areas around the world. It is sometimes very difficult to keep up the misting if you are keeping multiple animals or are on a busy schedule. Humidifiers will take care of the air inside your cage.

Air Humidifiers like this one can make your life much easier by taking care of the humidity inside your animals cage

However most of us can’t just place one inside the terrarium, which is why I highly recommend using a hose to connect your cage to the humidifier. On most humidifiers, you can set the time and amount of water you want to vaporize into your room. You must first test out how long your model has to run to create the perfect setting inside your cage before you place the animal inside, but after that, you don’t need to take care of it anymore. You can click HERE to see the humidifier I use to keep my cages moist or go to amazon.com to find your favourite model!

Another way would be to place the humidifier outside the cage and keep the entire room humidified. This is perfect if you reptile requires a constant level of around 50% to 70% humidity, but for tropical levels, this won’t be enough. For this purpose, I can only recommend “Vicks Germ Free Warm Mist Humidifiers V790” from amazon.com. SEE IT

Sprinklers

Sprinklers can also be a very useful method if you are keeping reptiles that require high humidity levels and are used to periodic rainfall and tropical climates. However, such devices are often difficult to install and are only really worth the while in large enclosures or outdoor cages. If you have the skill and equipment however, they are perfect for your tropical pets and will be highly attractive. They are also great for simulating periodic rainfalls. If you can program them to activate at a given time they will keep your cage moisture stable and your animal very happy.

Sprinklers are the perfect and aesthetic solution if you want to simulate periodic rainfall or tropical conditions for your pet!

If you are interested in finding the right model for your cage, go to amazon.com to see the available models!

 


I sincerely hope that you found this article very helpful and that you can now choose the right method for your reptile. If you have any further questions, let me know by email.

For questions about my sources, click HERE

 

Green Tree Python (Morelia Viridis) Care – Housing & Humidity

When it comes to keeping Green Tree Pythons (GTP), probably the most important task is to keep the housing stress free and the humidity high.

GTPs are very sensible to stress and low levels of humidity since they come from very remote locations on the tropical islands of Papua New Guinea.

Here, tropical rainfalls are a common thing and in the vast jungles, the humidity rarely drops below 60°. Also, this small species of pythons usually inhabits the high canopies in dense rain forests. Here, they have almost no natural predators and are rarely subject to stress. This is why keeping the animal calm is so important.

Morelia Viridis resting on a Branch
Morelia Viridis resting on a branch

 

In this article, I am going to show you different methods and housing strategies that you can apply and choose from.


Housing

Natural Set-ups are important to ensure that your python is stress-free

An important aspect of proper housing is the stress free environment for your animal. It should include features that enable your python to life by its natural habits. This way, your python does not have to adapt.

Cage Requirements

When it comes to cage size, the most important point is that it is useful and affordable

Practical refers to the space in your home and the space the python needs to move freely. It seems to be a common opinion that a 60 * 60 * 60 cm (length * depth * height) cage is an appropriate size for almost any snake.

However, I believe that is just because most commercially available terraria have this size. In my opinion, an adult Green Tree Python should have at least a 90 * 60 * 60 cm sized home. Although your python may not move as much, it still needs space to choose from. Also, some females may get considerably larger than males and could require a larger enclosure

Contrary to popular beliefs, a GTP does not require an exceptionally high cage. It is just as appropriate to have a wide and rectangular cage! The python does not care how far it is off the ground, but only how much climbing opportunity and space it has in total.

Horizontal Cages are inmost cases more practical for the care of GTPs (source: pixabay.com)

Also, as always I suggest that you do not get a cage you cannot afford. This just means that you should not try to get a huge terrarium only to find out that you cannot manage the temperature inside. This is especially true if the pythons need differs largely from your home climate.

Make sure that you can support the pythons livestyle on your budget. Snakes are sometimes even more relaxed in confined and personal spaces where they feel safe. You should be more worried about the climate than the space!

Temperature Gradient

In Nature, there is not always a constant temperature around. Just like us, Green Tree Pythons sometimes feel the need to cool down or warm up.

To enable the animal to choose its own temperature, we must ensure that there is a temperature gradient inside the cage. This just means that there should be a heat spot where the animal can warm up on one side, and a cooler region on the other side of the cage.

This will create a gradient between the two ends where the animal can choose its own resting spot. If you want to read more on Temperature gradients and heating methods, click HERE.

Heat panels that can be attached to the ceiling are a great option to create a temperature gradient

We achieve this heat gradient by placing the heat source on one end of the cage and not in the middle. The heat source should be either in the form of a heat panel that sticks to the ceiling or an infrared light.

For more information on heat sources, visit the page “The Best Methods to Heat your Terrarium” for detailed reviews to find the right heat source for yourself!

Cage Design and Set Up

When it comes to GTP cages, it is very important that we have a natural set up that enables our pythons to climb, hide and rest on branches, just like the would in the wild.

First of all, the set up should include a variety of thick and thin branches arranged both horizontally and vertically to make sure that our python can climb and find nice resting spots.

It is advisable to use natural sticks and branches that are not completely smooth. This gives the python a natural impression and make shedding easier. Some pythons may experience difficulty shedding if they do not have the rough natural bark to rub against.

You can just get some branches from your local forest, dry and wash them, and decorate your terrarium with them. Usually, you not have to worry about parasites if you choose nice and clean branches or sticks!

You should include natural ranches, and some plant to enable you animal to climb, hide and rest!

Second, your setup should definitely include a variety of either artificial or natural plants as cover for your animal. Most pythons do not like to be exposed during the day. They prefer to be lightly covered behind a bush or some artificial leaves.

This is important to ensure that your animal is not stressed out by any people walking by its cage. Since Green Tree Pythons are arboreal, they do not necessarily need a hiding place on the ground.

Also, always have a bowl of fresh water in your cage just in case. Most green tree pythons however drink directly from the droplets of water that condense on their skin.

Many Green Tree Pythons preferably drink the water droplets from their scales, so you should also spray your animal directly (source: pixabay.com)

Cage maintenance

Fortunately, there won’t be very much to do here. I recommend spot cleaning your cage quickly every day. This basically just means checking for snake waste or skin and removing it quickly.

That way, you only have to replace the entire bedding and clean the entire cage once every six or seven months. Make sure that there is always a bowl filled with fresh water and that the sphagnum-moss or substrate is always appropriately moist.


Humidity

The humidity level is is probably the most crucial aspect, especially for beginners. Since this species of pythons comes from tropical islands, they are used to the moist environment. Consequently, they require a constantly high level of moisture around them to keep the skin healthy.

We should ensure that the humidity throughout the day ranges between 65% and 100% and that it changes only slightly over the course of the day. This will greatly improve your animals health and help it avoid shedding issues. Also, a dried out individual will automatically more stressed out and nervous.

Since GTPs are very sensible, we must make sure that we do the best we can.

If the widows have fogged up like this, you have reached a perfect level of humidity and can let them dry off now.

However, it is not important to keep track of the exact humidity value and start freaking out all the time when it drops slightly.

Instead, we want to simulate the natural conditions from the wild. Usually, there are heavy rainfalls in the morning and evening and drier period during the day.  At night, due to lower temperatures, the humidity will rise again.

We can simulate this type daily structure by raising the humidity in the morning and again towards the night. During the day, the cage gets a chance to dry off slightly.

A great clue are the windows; after your morning mist, they should be completely fogged up and hardly transparent. Until lunchtime, they should dry off and become transparent again. Lastly, in the evening, you should mist again, but only about half the amount from the morning.

Of course, everybodies local climate is different so you need to try out which works best for you.

Methods to ensure a moist environment

There are several great methods to control the humidity inside your cage. These include, but are by far not limited to, spraying by hand, automatic sprayers and humidifiers.

Before you choose, you should be aware of your environment. Things like air conditioners can dry out a room fairly quickly while natural plants help stabilizing a moist surrounding. All of these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. To see the full description and choose which one is best for you, click HERE!

 


I hope you found this post helpful and enjoyed reading about the care for Morelia Viridis! For more information on this topic, let me know by email what posts you would like to see. For questions on my sources, visit “My Sources”.

The main source for this post was “Morelia Viridis – Das Kompendium” by Greg Maxwell. This book is definitely the #1 guide to keeping GTPs healthy. If you want to have a look, click HERE.

As always, feel free to leave a comment or contact me directly via email with your questions!